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If you liked last winter, you'll like this one. If not, you won't.        The Pacific ocean continues to be dominated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, an above norma...  More
 
Artists concept of Jason-1 ground track. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech ...  More
 
Dr. Lee-Lueng Fu - OST Project Scientist ...  More
 
Jason-1 launch, December 7, 2001.Image credit: NASA/JPL December 7,...  More
 
Anny Cazenave France has named Ocean Surface Topography science tea...  More
 
Dr. Josh Willis New NASA measurements of the Atlantic Meridio...  More
 
Oceanographer Dr. Josh Willis is among four JPL researchers to be named winners of the 2009 Lew Allen Award for Excellence. Josh, from the Ocean Circulation Group (3244), was cited for fundamental co...  More
 
Three Ocean Surface Technology Science Team members have been named the recipients of two of NASA's most prestigious awards this spring. ...  More
 
See the development of the recent Pacific Ocean conditions, 1993-2009. MPEG (15.6 MB)...  More
 
Lee-Lueng Fu and Yves Ménard JPL senior research scienti...  More
 
A new way of looking into hurricanes may help forecasters predict the extent of damaging winds and waves. JPL researchers Kenneth Oslund and Philip Callahan have developed a new technique using wave h...  More
 
The tropical Pacific Ocean has transitioned from last winter's El Niño conditions to a cool La Niña, as shown by new data about sea surface heights, collected by the U.S-French Ocean Sur...  More
 
The latest U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite imagery shows the persistent La Niña pattern continues to dominate the Pacific Ocean in a very similar manner to this time last year. For more th...  More
 
After dominating the tropical Pacific Ocean for more than two years, the 1998-2000 La Niña "cool pool" is continuing its slow fade and seems to be retiring from the climate stage, according to ...  More
 
Recent sea-level height data from the Jason-1 altimetric satellite show that continuing weaker-than-normal trade winds in the western and central equatorial Pacific have triggered another strong, east...  More
 
The tropical Pacific Ocean remains in the grips of a cool La Niña, as shown by new data of sea-level heights from mid-October of 2007, collected by the U.S-French Jason altimetric satellite. Th...  More
 
Boosted by the influence of a larger climate event in the Pacific, one of the strongest La Niñas in many years is slowly weakening but continues to blanket the Pacific Ocean near the equator, a...  More
 
The latest image of sea-surface height measurements from the U.S./French Jason-1 oceanography satellite shows the Pacific Ocean remains locked in a strong, cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillatio...  More
 
The North Pacific Ocean continues to run hot and cold, with abnormally low sea levels and cool waters in the northeastern Pacific contrasting with unusually high sea levels and warm waters in the nort...  More
 
Link to Full Res ...  More
 
The Argonautica team shows off their freshly completed buoy. ...  More
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
After three years of El Niño and La Niña with their often devastating climate consequences, the Pacific is finally calming down in the tropics but still shows signs of being abnormal els...  More
 
The Pacific Ocean doesn't show signs of anything that looks like the whopper El Niño of 1997-1998, according to the latest information from the U.S.-French ocean-observing satellite Topex/Posei...  More
 
In March, westerly wind bursts (i.e., east-blowing winds) north of Australia triggered an oceanic "Kelvin" wave that travelled eastward towards the Americas. This allowed warm water to move away from...  More
 
About one month after being triggered by east-blowing winds near Australia, an oceanic "Kelvin" wave reached South America. During this period, the oceanic pulse travelled over one-third the circumfe...  More
 
In May, warm water started piling up against the South American continent. The white area of sea level height 5 to 12 inches above normal (and warmer than normal by 3-5 degrees Fahrenheit) formed a "V...  More
 
In June, the white area of high sea level began to spread along the coasts of both the North and South America. Because higher-than-normal sea level corresponded to warmer-than-normal water, the fis...  More
 
In July, the white area of high sea level exceeded one-and-one-half times the area of the continental U.S. At this time, the volume of associated warmer-than-average water equaled 30 times ...  More
 
In August, the white area of sea level 5 to 12 inches above normal (and warmer than normal by 3-5 degrees Fahrenheit) extended from the American coast to the International Date Line. Near A...  More
 
Pacific Ocean sea-surface height measurements and atmospheric water vapor information taken from two independent Earth-orbiting satellites are providing more convincing evidence that the weather-disru...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
These images of the Pacific Ocean near Indonesia were produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The images show sea surface height relative to n...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
This image shows atmospheric water vapor in Earth's upper troposphere, about 10 kilometers (6 miles) above the surface, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument flying aboard the Upp...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
(Top image - P49502) This image shows differences in atmospheric water vapor relative to a normal (average) year in the Earth's upper troposphere about 10 kilometers (6 miles) above the surface. Th...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
(Top image - P49651ac) This image shows differences in atmospheric water vapor relative to a normal (average) year in the Earth's upper troposphere about 10 kilometers (6 miles) above the surface. T...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea-surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
This image displays wind measurements taken by the satellite-borne NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) during the last 10 days of May 1997, showing the relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere at the...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea-surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condi...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condi...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condi...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condi...  More
 
This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean condit...  More
 
The cold pool of water in the Pacific known as "La Niña" still persists, although it is slowly weakening, according to scientists studying new data from the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. ...  More
 
The cold pool of water in the Pacific known as "La Niña" is beginning to fade, but ocean conditions have not returned to normal, according to scientists studying new images from the U.S.-French ...  More
 
New sea surface height measurements from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite show that the sea level and temperature of the entire Pacific is "out of balance," including a large area of abnormally cool water...  More
 
Lingering just a month ago in the eastern Pacific Ocean, the La Niña phenomenon, with its large volume of chilly water, barely has a pulse this month, according to new satellite data from the U.S...  More
 
A repeat of last year's mild La Nina conditions -- with a stormy winter in the Pacific Northwest and a dry winter in the southwestern United States -- will be the likely outcome of sea-surface heights...  More
 
Unusually warm ocean temperatures off Asia and cool waters in the eastern and equatorial Pacific are signaling La Nina's mild return, according to the latest sea-surface heights observed by the joint ...  More
 
 
JPL Oceanographer Dr. William Patzert JPL Oceanographer Dr. William Patzert is the 2010 recipient of the American Geophysical Union Athelstan Spilhaus Award. This honor recognizes AGU members who have...  More
 
 
These data, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending August 18, 2001, show that above-normal sea-surface heights and warmer ocean temperatures (indicated by the red and white areas) still blanket...  More
 
A giant horseshoe pattern of higher than normal sea-surface heights developing over the last year is beginning to dominate the entire western Pacific and Asiatic oceans, new imagery from the U.S.-Fren...  More
 
The El Niño and La Niña events of the past few years may have faded into climate history, but the Pacific Ocean has not calmed down. The latest satellite data from the U.S.-French TOPEX/...  More
 
While change may be on the way, the Pacific is still dominated by the strong, larger-than-El Niño/La Niña pattern called the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), according to the latest data f...  More
 
The cooler and drier conditions in Southern California over the last few years appear to be a direct result of a long-term ocean pattern known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), according to re...  More
 
The latest remote sensing data from NASA's Jason satellite show near normal conditions across the equatorial Pacific Ocean. As we enter the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season, there are currently no visi...  More
 
In September 2006, NASA satellite data indicated that El Niño had returned to the tropical Pacific Ocean, although it was relatively weak. As of early October, scientists were not sure if the e...  More
 
New data of sea-level heights from early February, 2007, by the Jason altimetric satellite show that the tropical Pacific Ocean has transitioned from a warm (El Niño) to a cool (La Niña)...  More
 
For the first time, a hurricane storm surge has been observed by an ocean altimeter. The panels here depict significant wave height, wind speed and the residual sea level anomaly during Hurricane Ka...  More
 
Oceanography 101 HTML PPT - 9 MB MPEG - 24.6 MB ...  More
 
Figure 1: Line drawing of Jason-2 instrument package showing advanced microwave radiometer on top.Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech ...  More
 
Related Article: Perhaps the best weatherman in town (LA Times) Average temperatures warmed in nearly all parts of California between 1950 to 2000. Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cal State L.A. ...  More
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For the first time, NASA has the tools and expertise tounderstand the rate at which sea level is changing, some ofthe mechanisms that drive those changes and the effects thatsea level change may have ...  More
 
The 2002-03 El Niño has resisted stereotypes with its unpredictable behavior. Sometimes Earth scientist Bill Patzert wishes he had a degree in psychology. It might help him understand El Ni&n...  More
 
Article courtesy of JPL When a friend asked Jorge Vazquez to speak eight years ago to a group of high school students about his job and Earth science, the JPL oceanographer reluctantly said yes. "I ...  More
 
Article courtesy of JPL For the first time, orbiting satellites have observed and measured a major tsunami event in open ocean, the Indian Ocean tsunami that resulted from the m...  More
 
Recent sea level height data from the U.S./France Jason altimetric satellite during a 10-day cycle ending June 15, 2004, shows that Pacific equatorial surface ocean heights and temperatures are near n...  More
 
Recent sea-level height data from the U.S./France Jason altimetric satellite during a 10-day cycle ending July 27, 2004, show that weaker than normal trade winds in the western and central equatorial ...  More
 
Recent sea-level height data from the U.S./France Jason altimetric satellite during a 10-day cycle ending November 15, 2004, show that the central equatorial Pacific continues to exhibit an area of hi...  More
 
"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times...." The same event can have dramatically different outcomes. For some, an El Niño means a welcome respite from bitter winter weather and h...  More
 
A study of the effect of warm core rings in the Gulf of Mexico on hurricanes using altimetry data earned high school senior Justin Kovac seventh place in the prestigious 2005 Intel Science Talent Sear...  More
 
Dr. Josh Willis conducting an oceanographic experiment studying sea temperatures between New Zealand and Hawaii. ...  More
 
Screen capture of the web interface. ...  More
 
Successful space missions require much more than just great technology, they need dedicated people to create them, operate them and make the most of the information they provide. Leading the...  More
 
Advanced Microwave Radiometer Team, Mohamed Abid (kneeling, third from left) Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech ...  More
 
The President of the United States has proclaimed June 2007 as National Ocean Month. This is a fine opportunity to reinforce the commitment of the Jason-1 mission and JPL to understanding and protecti...  More
 
We are very pleased to announce that two members of the Ocean Surface Topography science team have won prestigious American Meteorological Society Awards: Dr. Richard D. Ray has won the Verner ...  More
 
The OSTM/Jason-2 spacecraft arrives at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., following its trans-Atlantic flight from France. Image credit: NASA ...  More
 
 
 
One of JPL's most accomplished and critical oceanography studies continues with the launch of the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite, scheduled for June 2008 from Vandenberg Air...  More
 
Diablo Canyon Power Plant Ocean conditions have a big effect on operations at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant. ...  More
 
JPL Director Charles Elachi, Josh Willis, and Bill Patzert ...  More
 
Yves Ménard Tribute to a colleague and a friend One of my last memories of Yves was when he told me about his cancer and what lay ahead for him. He approached the pro...  More
 
Artists concept of Jason-1 ...  More
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NASA's ocean surface topography 'family portrait'; TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2. View larger image. ...  More
 
John Sears: A senior studying meteorology at Plymouth State University in New Hampshire. ...  More
 
View larger animation Gulf Stream as seen by Jason-2 This image (left) shows a close up view of the Gulf Stream ocean current off of the east coast of th...  More
 
Drs. Bill Patzert and Josh Willis of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory ...  More
 
Ever since a "World Ocean Day" concept was first proposed in 1992, many organizations around the world have used June 8th as an annual opportunity to celebrate the ocean in support of education and co...  More
 
"NASA Headquarters successfully nominated Dr. Josh Willis for a Presidential Early Career Award. Josh's Award speaks well for his accomplishments and the strong ocean science programs at both NAS...  More
 
View Related News Video Using Jason-2 altimetry data, NASA scientists are closely monitoring the recent Pacific El Niño warming. Since El Niño has been quiet since the histori...  More
 
Dr. Josh Willis Congratulations to Ocean Surface Topography Deputy Projec...  More
 
JPL Climate Day 2010 "Bringing Scientists, Students, and Communities together to Promote Global Climate Literacy" Save the Dates! March 26th and 27th 9:00am - 3:00pm Pasadena Convention Center Con...  More
 
Tropical cyclones may feed and grow stronger on ocean heat, and a new Google Earth application based on satellite altimetry observations shows where they may find it. The application maps the heat con...  More
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Article courtesy of JPL NEWS RELEASE: 08-189 OSTM/Jason-2 map of sea-level anomalies from July 4 to July 14, 2008 (above). C...  More
 
As Hurricane Isabel slammed into the North Carolina Coast this month, TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 orbited calmly overhead. Below are the images. For more information, visit the ...  More
 
Article courtesy of JPL Imagine a place where the roads change constantly and last month's map may be completely out of date. That's the ocean. Knowing where the curren...  More
 
A new NASA study concludes that more energy is being absorbed from the Sun than is emitted back to space, warming the globe. The study compares ocean warming estimates based on data from the TOPEX/P...  More
 
Hundreds of college students along with their professors got a first hand look at ocean topography and altimetry when Jason PI Gustavo Goni came aboard their floating campus this spri...  More
 
Global mean sea level Link ...  More
 
Deployment location of the six drifters and floats during the MV Explorer transect between Cape Town and Salvador in April 2005. ...  More
 
Figure 1. Altimetry-derived sea surface height (color, yellows are higher and blues are lower) and surface current directions (arrows) highlight the Loop Current and a warm ring...  More
 
Quicktime (with caption - 12 MB): Narrated overview of how spacecraft monitor hurricanes...  More
 
The migration route of one Bluefin Tuna over a two year period, and tagging a Southern Bluefin Tuna. Source: Stanford University ...  More
 
Artists concept of TOPEX/Poseidon. ...  More
 
Dr. Bill Patzert explains how the Jason-1 satellite measures sea surface height. ...  More
 
Web-based forecast showing surface current field in Gulf of Mexico. ...  More
 
Significant wave height and wind direction from NOAA WaveWatch III Model.       Geostrophic currents and drift trajectories. ...  More
 
Mean sea level Image Credit: Univ. Colorado ...  More
 
The Ocean Surface Topography Mission on board the Jason-2 satellite (OSTM/Jason-2) slated to launch in June 2008 will continue the long-term collection of sea-surface height data, whi...  More
 
An Argo float shortly before recovery by the Japan Coast Guard vessel Takuyo. Image credit: Japan Coast Guard ...  More
 
Jason-2 satellite bus integration Image credit: CNES and Alcatel ...  More
 
Related Features:- A Q&A with Two Mission Leaders - Latest Image Release ---> ...  More
 
A sea lion shares his intimate knowledge of the ocean with researchers via an electronic tag. Image credit: Mike Weise ...  More
 
In August 2006, New York educator, Jacob Tanenbaum participated in the Satellites and Education Conference held in Los Angeles, California where he attended a presentation by Jet Propulsion Laboratory...  More
 
New York's Cottage Lane Elementary School's student constructed Argonautica drifter buoy was successfully deployed on 23 May 2007. Argonautica is the CNES-sponsored oceanography education pr...  More
 
ESA and CNES announce the release of the Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT), a set of software and information dedicated to radar altimetry satellites, developed by CLS. For more than 16 years, sin...  More
 
Download the PDF (2.3 MB). ...  More
 
Laura Faye Tenenbaum ...  More
 
This photo shows the Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR). ...  More
 
Just because instruments designed to fly on a satellite do well when tested individually on the ground doesn't mean the whole satellite will function properly once it's flying in space. To make sure e...  More
 
This image shows the data from TOPEX/Jason-1 (top), and the combined data from TOPEX/Jason-1 and ERS-1 (bottom).Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Chelton, et al, 2007 ...  More
 
This map shows how currents could affect the rowers' course. On Dec. 27, the rowers (magenta line) reached the outer edge of the most energetic zone, where the risk of strong adverse currents is high....  More
 
We are very pleased to announce that two members of the Ocean Surface Topography science team have been elected as 2008 American Geophysical Union Fellows. Fellows of AGU are members who have ...  More
 
Watch the video - Hot Topic: EarthScientists and educators teach students about climate change and its impact on Earth. ...  More
 
Anny Cazenave ...  More
 
In economics, there's a metaphor that says "a rising tide lifts all boats," meaning overall improvement in the economy benefits everyone. While that's a good thing in economics, when it comes to our o...  More
 
A space-based perspective enables the of mapping large-scale ocean phenomena, such as the 2007 La Niña above. The more scientists learn about ocean surface topography, the better they can apply...  More
 
"Follow the water" has been a strategy behind the latest Mars explorations. Scientists from NASA and CNES, the French space agency, want to take that concept in a different direction and apply it to E...  More
 
It is June 20, 2008, 12:46 a.m. at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The weather is chilly, but chilly weather does nothing to cool the heated excitement of hundreds of people here to witness of the l...  More
 
Ocean altimeters, such as those on NASA's TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 satellites, "see" hurricanes with a different eye. Altimeters measure the height of the sea surface, which is typically higher in ...  More
 
Artist concept of OSTM/Jason-2 in space. Full res (2.1 MB)Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech ...  More
 
Pools of warm water known as Kelvin waves can be seen traveling eastward along the equator (black line) in this Sept. 17, 2009, image from the NASA/French Space Agency Ocean Surface Topography Mission...  More
 
El Niño is experiencing a late-fall resurgence. Recent sea-level height data from the NASA/European Ocean Surface Topography Mission/Jason-2 oceanography satellite show that a large-scale, sust...  More
 
The latest image of Pacific Ocean sea surface heights from the NASA/European Ocean Surface Topography Mission/Jason-2 oceanography satellite, dated , shows that the tropical Pacific has switched from ...  More
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Article courtesy of JPL Oceanographer Dr. William Patzert, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., will discuss one of the planet's m...  More
 
Article courtesy of JPL If the producers of Jeopardy do call Sara Hyman, who recently passed the game show's qualifying tests, she won't ...  More
 
Article courtesy of JPL Artists concept of the Tandem Mission ...  More
 
Article courtesy of JPL The rate of coastal ero...  More
 
This image from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite shows preliminary results of wave height over the global ocean as measured by the Ku-band NASA altimeter. The data were recorded from Sept. 25 to Oct. 4, 1...  More
 
Ocean Topography is a measure of sea level relative to Earth's geoid, a surface on which the gravity field is uniform. Oceanographers use ocean topography maps to calculate the speed and direction of ...  More
 
TOPEX/Poseidon surveys sea-level heights by measuring the time required for pulses generated by the onboard radar altimeters to bounce back to the satellite from the sea surface. This indicates the di...  More
 
TOPEX/Poseidon surveys sea-level heights by measuring the time required for pulses generated by the onboard radar altimeters to bounce back to the satellite from the sea surface. Water vapor in the at...  More
 
The image shows the global distribution of wind speed as observed by TOPEX/Poseidon's dual-frequency radar altimeter from October 3 to October 12, 1992. Wind speed is determined by the strength of the...  More
 
The seas of Earth are in constant motion. Large systems of highs and lows (liquid hills and valleys) develop in the oceans' surface as a result of ocean currents. These highs and lows are permanent fe...  More
 
Ocean seasons are measured by comparing seasonal variations in sea level to the yearly average. The highest sea level -- shown as the large areas of red in the fall image -- is caused by summer heatin...  More
 
Eddies are swirls of water currents that are spun off from a main current or that are forced by the wind. Ocean eddies may persist from weeks to months, have diameters of tens to hundreds of kilometer...  More
 
This image compares a computer simulation (top) with observations (bottom) of Pacific Ocean sea levels during December 1994. The colors show the sea level relative to a 2-year mean averaged over 1993 ...  More
 
This sequence of 3 TOPEX/Poseidon "snapshots" show sea surface height data in the Pacific Ocean. White and red indicated higher than average levels; purple and magenta indicate lower than average leve...  More
 
TOPEX/Poseidon's continuous observation of global sea surface height has provided unparalleled opportunities to address a wide array of scientific issues. Uses of ocean altimetry data range from monit...  More
 
This TOPEX/Poseidon image of sea-surface heights was taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending August 7, 2002. Sea-surface heights are a measure of how much heat is stored in the ocean below to in...  More
 
The latest image from NASA's Jason oceanography satellite, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending December 2, 2002, shows the Pacific dominated by two significant areas of higher-than-normal se...  More
 
The latest image from NASA's Jason oceanography satellite, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending April 2, 2003, shows that the warm, high sea level El Niño pool of the past winter is hi...  More
 
Since the weak El Niño event of last winter, the equatorial Pacific has cooled and oceanographers have been on a La Niña "watch." Thus far, equatorial waters have seesawed between coolin...  More
 
Some climate forecast models indicate there is an above average chance that there could be a weak to borderline El Niño by the end of November 2003. However, the trade winds, blowing from east to west...  More
 
Recent sea-level height data from the U.S./France Jason altimetric satellite during a 10-day cycle ending, show that the central equatorial Pacific continues to exhibit an area of higher-than-normal s...  More
 
The tropical Pacific Ocean is beginning to exhibit the characteristics of a developing La Niña condition. This image shows that the gradual cooling of the central equatorial Pacific over the pa...  More
 
The most recent sea-level height data from the NASA/European Ocean Surface Topography Mission/Jason-2 oceanography satellite show the continued eastward progression of a strong wave of warm water, kno...  More
 
El Niño 2009-2010 just keeps hanging in there. Recent sea-level height data from the NASA/European Ocean Surface Topography Mission/Jason-2 oceanography satellite show that a large-scale, susta...  More
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The rise and fall of the '97 - '98 El Niño with information and classroom activities. Information and Classroom Activities (in PDF format) Background ...  More
 
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Current and archived news items and features from our web site. Spotlights -- learn about our missions, our scientists, ocean science in general, and special events. Press Releases -- what's "in t...  More
 
This series will familiarize you with the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) mission, science, and products that are available for Earth-related studies. It has 22 "slides" (presented in 3 parts) and accompanying t...  More
 
Part I.   |   Part II.   |   Part III. Click on the links below to jump down to that topic. Ocean Heat Transport Ocean Eddies What Factors Contribute to S...  More
 
Part I.   |   Part II.   |   Part III. Click on the links below to jump down to that topic. Dynamic Ocean Topography: Sept '92 & May '96 Currents Calcu...  More
 
Congratulations! You are a certified Junior Oceanographer. If you entered your name and location before taking the quiz you will be added to the Junior Oceanographer Hall of Fame soon! NASA/JPL and ...  More
 
The Bridge is a unique clearinghouse of the best K-12 ocean sciences education sites available online OceanLink is a partnership between several marine organizations, all committe...  More
 
"Fish poop," a good fertilizer, falls downward. It is used by phytoplankton, which in turn, become fish food....  More
 
Eddies are concentrated on the western side of the these basins where major currents, such as the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Current, occur....  More
 
Waves Tides Ocean currents Ocean eddies Temperature of the upper ocean water...  More
 
Except for gravity, each changes over days, months, or a few years. Of these remaining factors, basin-wide ocean circulation is the most stable - it does not change significantly over periods of days ...  More
 
All of these factors are dependent on their location in the ocean....  More
 
Ocean eddies - up to about 25 centimeters (10 inches) Temperature of the upper ocean water - up to about 35 centimeters (13 inches), similar to the contribution from ocean eddies Tides in the deep o...  More
 
The influence of the Moon's gravity on our oceans is called lunar tides....  More
 
The outside of the Merry-go-Round spins fastest This is analogous to how the Earth spins fastest at the Equator....  More
 
The difference between the highest and lowest parts of ocean dynamic topography is just over 2 meters (6 feet); from about -120 centimeters to +100 centimeters....  More
 
The overall change in sea surface height caused by circulation is about 75 times less than that due to gravity. Smoothed model of the Earth's Geoid...  More
 
No, the Ocean Dynamic Topography maps do not look significantly different from one another. General ocean circulation at these scales does not change much over 10's to 100's of years....  More
 
Areas of very low ocean dynamic topography correspond ROUGHLY with where ocean water sinks near the Earth's poles....  More
 
The difference between the highest and lowest parts of sea surface variability is about 18 centimeters (about 7 inches); from -9 to +9 centimeters....  More
 
Overall sea surface variability is about 1/16 of the overall variation in sea surface height caused by ocean circulation....  More
 
The top map is from fall in the Northern Hemisphere. Sea surface highs occur because of the expansion of the upper ocean water after it is heated throughout the summer. The bottom map shows spring i...  More
 
In the Northern Hemisphere, the overall change in sea surface height between these seasons is very dramatic. Season-to-season changes in the Southern Hemisphere are much more moderate. The "ocean...  More
 
The graphs should look similar to the one shown below: The top map shows a "downhill" trend from west-to-east. The bottom map shows sea-level that "tilts" slightly to the west with generally a hi...  More
 
The 1982 - 83 "El Niño" was estimated to have caused $8 billion in damage worldwide!...  More
 
The data from the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason missions helps us study and understand the complex interactions between the oceans and the atmosphere that affect global weather and climate events. El Ni&nt...  More
 
This page contains information about OSTM/Jason-2 scientists, a summary of their scientific investigations, and links to their research web sites (where available). You can also view past Scientific...  More
 
Larger image and caption Authors: Pascal Bonnefond (OCA/GeoAzur) Co-Investigator(s): P. Exertier, O. Laurain, F. Pierron (OCA/GeoAzur)Y. Ménard (CNES)F. Lyar...  More
 
Ocean Surface Topography (Flash required to view this module. Download Flash) Earth's oceans are the greatest influence on global climate. Only from space can we observe our vast oceans on a global ...  More
 
The Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite (OSTM/Jason-2) is a follow-on to the Jason-1 mission. It launched 20 June 2008 from Vandenburg Air Force Base in California. Explore the...  More
 
Artists concept of the OSTM/Jason-2 spacecraft. OSTM/Jason-2 Instruments Poseidon-3 dual frequency altimeter The Poseidon-3 radar altimeter is the main instrument on the Jason-2 mission. Deri...  More
 
OSTM/Jason-2 launched June 20, 2008 from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The launch vehicle was a United Launch Alliance Delta II. Learn more at Delta II: Countdown 101 OSTM Newsletter (PDF,&...  More
 
TIME(hr:min:sec) EVENT VIDEO CLIPS from Jason-1 00:00:00 Liftoff QuickTime230 x 180 (496 Kb) 00:00:48 Maximum Dyn...  More
 
Check out some of the OSTM/Jason-2 movies, animations, and images. MOVIES We Have Separation! This is a view from the second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle which lifted OSTM/Jason-2 into i...  More
 
The Ocean Surface Topography Science Team is composed of a group of international and interdisciplinary scientists dedicated to the study of Earth's oceans, utilizing ocean altimeter data from space. ...  More
 
Browse (JPG, 120 KB)PDF (PDF, 1.46 MB) Hi-res (TIF, 16.5 MB) ...  More
 
A Growing La Niña Chills Out the Pacific September 15, 2010 Adios El Niño, Hello La Niña? June 11, 2010 ...  More
 
Part I.   |   Part II.   |   Part III. Click on the links below to jump down to that topic. Data Images Ocean & Climate Satellite Ground Tracks Meas...  More
 
Authors: I. Fukumori, Y. Chao, L.-L. Fu, T. Lee, W. T. Liu, D. Menemenlis, V. Zlotnicki (Jet Propulsion Laboratory,California Institute of TechnologyUSA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Ichiro Fukumori JPL M...  More
 
The gallery offers some of our best images at medium and high resolution (when possible). If you are interested in using any of these images, please be aware of the JPL Picture Use Policy. POSTERS:...  More
 
 
 
 
El Niño The data from TOPEX/Poseidon, and in the future Jason-1, helps us study and understand the complex interactions between the oceans and the atmosphere which affect global weather and...  More
 
El Niño/La Niña Information on the Web There are many excellent sites containing basic information on these phenomena, the effects of El Niño and La Niña on weather and c...  More
 
TOPEX/Poseidon is a satellite that measures the precise shape of the ocean's surface and how this surface changes through time. This helps the scientists to calculate ocean currents, identify climate ...  More
 
PARTNERS Aviso, Observing the Ocean from Space Ocean World Real-Time Altimetry Project EDUCATION Texas A & M University's TOPEX/Poseidon Science Working Team University of Texa...  More
 
function checkEnter(e) { //e is event object passed from function invocation var characterCode; //literal character code will be stored in this variable if(e && e.which) { //if which prop...  More
 
OSTM Home PageOverviewWhy Study the Ocean?ClimateGlobal Warming or Global Climate Change?The Spherical Shape of the EarthMovement of the Earth through SpacePhysical Properties of WaterMission BasicsOc...  More
 
A ground-based beacon called "DORIS" sends radio signals to a satellite receiver that measures the "Doppler." The "Doppler effect" is what causes the distinctive sound pattern you hear when a car pass...  More
 
The ruler with 1/16th" marks would provide better precision....  More
 
Yes, there is a high degree of correlation between wind speed and significant wave height in the images. Simultaneous observations of wind speed and wave height are helping scientists to predict oce...  More
 
No, tropical trade winds are steady and don't show much seasonal variation in these images....  More
 
The orientation of the Earth's poles relative to the Sun causes the difference in energy received at the Equator and the poles. The average amount of incoming solar radiation decreases from the E...  More
 
We've prepared a veritable ocean of educational resources on weather, climate, and oceanic science for learners of all ages and backgrounds. Some of these products are available to order. Please see t...  More
 
Launch Images  |  Launch Footage  |  Launch Sequence  |  Launch - Crowd   |  Launch Animation Jason-1 Launch Images fr...  More
 
Launch Images  |  Launch Footage   |  Launch Sequence  |  Launch - Crowd  |  Launch Animation Jason-1 Launched on Dec...  More
 
OSTM/Jason-2 The Poseidon-3 radar altimeter is the main instrument on the Jason-2 mission. Derived from the Poseidon-1 altimeter on TOPEX/Poseidon and the Poseidon-2 on Jason-1, it measures sea lev...  More
 
Information about the Visit to an Ocean Planet Educational CD-ROM June 2010 The Visit to an Ocean Planet educational CD-ROM was developed in 1998 by the TOPEX/Poseidon Project outreach team for use ...  More
 
There are a variety of activities available below including Make Your Own El Niño in the Classroom, which in less than 5 minutes provides a hands-on demonstration of the El Niño effect u...  More
 
SURFS UP! Ocean scientists are stoked! It's Jason-1, dude! For the past 10 years, oceanographers from all over the world have been riding wave after wave of amazing sea surface height (SSH) data. Or...  More
 
Find the latest Pacific Decadal Oscillation press releases. Also, check the Pacific Decadal Oscillation news collected by the University of Washington group that discovered the PDO. Other Pacific D...  More
 
Because the anomalies are relative to an annual sine fit, the animation we are looking at presents the combination of 2 dominant types of anomalies happening in the Indian Ocean. the semi-annual co...  More
 
by: Claire Perigaud This animation illustrates the strong climatic anomalies that took place in the Indian Ocean in 1997-1998-1999. In winter 1997/98, sea level was significantly lower than usual ...  More
 
SSH and SST Anomalies - Pacific Ocean (10/92 - 08/02) QuickTime Movie - Large (17.1 MB) --> QuickTime Movie (3.4 MB) QuickTime Movie Slower - 36 sec. (3.8 MB) MPEG Movie (1 MB) --> ...  More
 
The Educational Webpage Links provide a rich storehouse of links to many ocean-focused sites offering additional materials, contacts, activities, information, and more links! The Frequently Asked Qu...  More
 
Earth's ocean is huge! This means it has all kinds of things to explore and learn. And what better way to learn than by having fun! Look here for some cool ocean facts and learn how satellites way abo...  More
 
This section contains some of our most popular educational products. Not all products remain available as hardcopy - however, links give you access to PDF versions of posters, book marks and brochures...  More
 
Attention Students! REVISED! Are your teachers requiring you to cover your textbooks? Are you tired of covering them with boring brown bags? NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has produced a book cove...  More
 
Attention Educators! REVISED! Do you require your students to cover their textbooks? Are you tired of seeing cast-off grocery bags coming back to life as book covers? NASA's Jet Propulsion Laborator...  More
 
09/15/2010 Vestibulum ut metus mi. Vestibulum id convallis diam. Aliquam quis orci lacus, id porta nisl. Integer tempus, odio s...  More
 
Select Year 2010   2010 09/15/2010...  More
 
Join the Sealevel Mailing List Joining the Mailing List If you would like to join the sealevel mailing list, simply send a blank e-mail message to: join-sealevel@list.jpl.nasa.gov The purpose ...  More
 
The following is a summary of what you'll find in this section. Science Objectives Science objectives for NASA's ocean altimetry missions and beyond Practical Applications Society benefits...  More
 
Where are they now? Where are they now? Have you ever looked up in the night sky to see a satellite? Have you wondered what satellite it was? Maybe it was Jason-1 or OSTM/Jason-2. You can find out! Se...  More
 
Jason-1 was the first follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon mission. This second joint NASA-CNES mission was built on a French spacecraft, and launched on an American Delta II rocket from ...  More
 
There is also a PDF (PDF, 1 MB) version of the Fact Sheet. Objectives Extend ocean surface topography into the 21st century Provide a 5-year view of global ocean surface topography...  More
 
Jason-1 launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on December 7, 2001. The launch vechicle was a Delta II, which was shared with another NASA mission, TIMED. Jason-1 was separated first. ...  More
 
The concept of using a spaceborne radar altimeter to measure ocean topography was formulated in the late 1960s. The concept was first demonstrated by Seasat (1978), followed by the U.S. Navy's Geosat ...  More
 
Launched in 1992, TOPEX/Poseidon is a joint venture between CNES and NASA that measured ocean surface topography to an accuracy of 4.2 cm, enabled scientists to forecast the 1997-1998 El Niño, ...  More
 
There is also a PDF (PDF, 2.81 MB) version of the Fact Sheet. Objectives Three-year global view of Earth's oceans Improved understanding of ocean currents Improved forecasting of ...  More
 
In 1979, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory began planning TOPEX, an Ocean Topography Experiment that would use a satellite altimeter to measure the surface of the world's oceans. At the same time the F...  More
 
Launch Images   |  Launch Footage  |  Launch Sequence  |  Launch - Crowd  |  Launch Animation Jason-1 launch. ---> ...  More
 
Launch Images  |  Launch Footage  |  Launch Sequence   |  Launch - Crowd  |  Launch Animation Jason-1/TIMED Sequence ...  More
 
Meet mission team members and other ocean altimetry people who have contributed to the Ocean Surface Topography from Space effort. The mission team is made up of individuals from JPL, NASA, universi...  More
 
Launch Images  |  Launch Footage  |  Launch Sequence  |  Launch - Crowd  |  Launch Animation Jason-1 Measuring Ocean ...  More
 
Here are some of the things that take place before a launch. Joint NASA-French Satellite to Track Trends in Sea Level, Climate (May 20, 2008)A satellite that will help scientists better monitor a...  More
 
OSTM/Jason-2 is a follow to the Jason-1 and TOPEX/Poseidon missions and continues to provide high quality sea surface height data. The design for OSTM/Jason-2 and Jason-1 was based on the concept succ...  More
 
OSTM/Jason-2 The DORIS instrument onboard Jason-2 provides real-time location and precise orbit determination. DORIS measurements are also used for geophysical studies, in particular through the In...  More
 
OSTM/Jason-2 The GPS Payload (GPSP) on OSTM/Jason-2 is a tracking system that receives dual-frequency navigation signals continuously and simultaneously from 16 GPS satellites to determine the exac...  More
 
OSTM/Jason-2 The LRA is an array of mirrors that provide a target for laser tracking measurements from the ground. By analyzing the round-trip time of the laser beam, we can locate where the satell...  More
 
OSTM/Jason-2 The Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR), is an enhanced version of the Jason-1 Microwave Radiometer (JMR). Like the JMR, it acquires measurements via three separate frequency channels ...  More
 
Climate is the long-term state of the atmosphere at a particular location--in a sense, the "average weather" over a long period of time. Climate varies significantly around the globe, and not randomly...  More
 
Is this just part of a natural cycle? How much of this warming is due to the burning of fossil fuels? Is human nature affecting Mother Nature? What should we do? What challenges will our children have...  More
 
Because the Earth is a sphere, the surface gets much more intense sunlight, hence heat, at the equator than at the poles. On the equinox, the Sun passes directly overhead at noon on the equator and a ...  More
 
The 24-hour-per-day spin of the Earth accounts for the Coriolis "force." The Earth is 40,000 kilometers (24,900 miles) around at its widest part, the equator. Because it spins on its axis once in 24 h...  More
 
Water is an enormously efficient heat-sink. Solar heat absorbed by bodies of water during the day, or in the summer, is released at night, or in winter. Sites on islands or coasts benefit from the mod...  More
 
This page is still TBD. Waiting for content from customer....  More
 
Topography is the shape of a surface, including its relief. The topography of the sea surface is influenced by both gravity and ocean circulation. The actual shape of the Earth is not a perfec...  More
 
Satellite observations of the oceans over the past three decades have truly revolutionized our understanding of global climate change through measurements and modeling of the ocean-atmosphere climat...  More
 
New Societal Benefits Coming Soon! Data and images from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 ocean missions are being used for a wide range of scientific as well as commercial and practical uses. Check back s...  More
 
Coming Soon! New tool for selecting and displaying AMR data! Check back soon to try this valuable new tool......  More
 
LATEST IMAGES - 08/31/2010 08/16/2010 ...  More
 
Authors: William Bertiger (California Institute of Technology - JPL) Co-Investigator(s): Shailen DesaiBruce Haines (California Institute of Technology - JPL) ...  More
 
Authors: Charon Birkett (University of Maryland) Co-Investigator(s): David Bjerklie (United States Geological Survey) Matthew Rodell (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) ...  More
 
Authors: Shannon Brown (California Institute of Technology - JPL) Co-Investigator(s): Shailen DesaiBruce Haines (California Institute of Technology - JPL) ...  More
 
Authors: Philip Callahan (California Institute of Technology - JPL) Co-Investigator(s): Ernesto Rodriguez (California Institute of Technology - JPL) ...  More
 
Authors: Dudley Chelton (Oregon State University) Co-Investigator(s): Roger Samelson(Oregon State University) Larg...  More
 
Authors: Eric Dombrowsky (MERCATOR OCEAN) Co-Investigator(s): Pierre BahurelDominique ObatonYann Drillet (Mercator Océan) Marie Drevillon(CERFACS) Mounir Benkiran(CLS) Didier Jourdan(SHOM...  More
 
Larger image with caption Authors: William Emery (University of Colorado at Boulder) Co-Investigator(s): C.K. Shum(Ohio State University) ...  More
 
Larger image with caption Authors: Bruce Haines (California Institute of Technology - JPL) Co-Investigator(s): George Born (University of Colorado at Boulder) Shaile...  More
 
Authors: Weiqing Han (University of Colorado at Boulder) Co-Investigator(s): Jeffrey Weiss (University of Colorado) ...  More
 
Authors: Steven Jayne (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) Co-Investigator(s): W. Owens (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) ...  More
 
Authors: Kathryn Kelly (University of Washington) Co-Investigator(s): LuAnne Thompson (University of Washington) ...  More
 
Larger image with caption Authors: Gary Lagerloef (Earth and Space Research) Co-Investigator(s): Fabrice Bonjean (Earth and Space Research)Gary Mitchum (University of ...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Robert Leben (University of Colorado at Boulder) Co-Investigator(s): George Born (University of Colorado at Boulder) ...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Frank Lemoine (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Co-Investigator(s): Brian Beckley (SGT, Inc.)Scott Luthcke (University of Colorado at Boulder)Niki...  More
 
Authors: Nikolai Maximenko (University of Hawaii) Co-Investigator(s): Emanuele Di Lorenzo (Georgia Institute of Technology)Niklas Schneider (University of Hawaii at Manoa) ...  More
 
Authors: Laury Miller (NOAA/NESDIS/ORA) Co-Investigator(s): Eric Leuliette (NOAA)Remko Scharroo (Altimetrics LLC)Walter Smith (NOAA) ...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Nelly Mognard (LEGOS) Co-Investigator(s): Paul Bates (University of Bristol)Lee-Lueng Fu (California Institute of Technology - JPL)Douglas Alsdorf ...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Robert Nerem (University of Colorado at Boulder) Co-Investigator(s): Don Chambers (University of Texas at Austin)James Choe (University of Colorado...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Ananda Pascual (Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avancats, IMEDEA(CSIC-UIB)) Co-Investigator(s): Alberto ÁlvarezJoaquin TintoréSim&oacu...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Erricos Pavlis (University of Maryland Baltimore) Co-Investigator(s): D. Paradisis P. MilasB. Massinas(National Technical University of Athens, Gre...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Rui Ponte (Atmospheric & Environmental Research Inc.) Co-Investigator(s): Ross Hoffman(Atmospheric & Environmental Research Inc.)Sergey Vin...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Bo Qiu (University of Hawaii) Abstract: In this research we characterize and understand the nature and causes ...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Richard Ray (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Co-Investigator(s): Gary Egbert(Oregon State University)Edward Zaron (Portland State University) ...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Peter Rhines (University of Washington) Co-Investigator(s): Sirpa Hakkinen(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Ab...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Y. Tony Song (California Institute of Technology - JPL) Co-Investigator(s): Jun-Yi Guo(Ohio State University)C.K. Shum(Ohio State University)Raden ...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Paul Strub (Oregon State University) Co-Investigator(s): Tracy Haack(Naval Research Laboratory)Ricardo Matano(Oregon State University) ...  More
 
Authors: Douglas Vandemark (University of New Hampshire) Co-Investigator(s): Fabrice Ardhuin (SHOM)Bertrand Chapron(IFREMER/Centre de Brest)Hui Feng (University of New Hampshire)Ngan Tran (Colle...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Jacques Verron (LEGI/CNRS) Co-Investigator(s): Joaquim Ballabrera (CSIC)Eric Blayo, Laurent Debreu, Maelle Nodet, Arthur Vidard (LJK)Laurent Bertin...  More
 
Larger image Authors: John Wilkin (Rutgers, The State University) Co-Investigator(s): Remko Scharroo(Altimetrics LLC)Douglas Vandemark(University of New Hampshire)Javier...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Carl Wunsch (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Co-Investigator(s): Patrick Heimbach(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) ...  More
 
Larger image Authors: Victor Zlotnicki (California Institute of Technology - JPL) Co-Investigator(s): Dimitris Menemenlis(California Institute of Technology - JPL) ...  More
 
From its vantage point 1336 kilometers (830 miles) above the Earth, the US/European Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 ocean altimeter satellites measure the height of the ocean surface directly underneath the ...  More
 
Select Year 2010   2010 NASA/NOAA Study -- El Niñ...  More
 
Jason-1 PosterOceans' Role in Climate - Jason-1Mapping Global Ocean CirculationOceans' Role in Climate - ApplicationsEl Niño PosterTOPEX/Poseidon Poster (no text)A Year in the Life Of El NiñoEarth Sci...  More
 
Pacific Decadal Oscillation flyerJason-1 Fact SheetTOPEX/Poseidon Fact SheetTracking the Oceans' Height To Understand Earth's ClimateJason-1 5th Anniversary/Ocean Literacy BookmarkThe Legacy of Topex...  More
 
Jason-1 Fact SheetTOPEX/Poseidon Fact SheetEstudio de seguimiento de la altura de los océanos para comprender el clima terrestreAviso site en Español1...  More
 
Whale Census and HabitatApplications of Spaceborne AltimetryAltimeter Applications - JPL Open House '99Bringing Satellite Data Down to Earth1...  More
 
Jason-1: First ImageWave HeightWind SpeedWater VaporIonospheric Total Electron ContentSea Surface HeightVariability of Ocean Dynamic TopographyOcean Dynamic TopographySea LevelOcean Dynamic Topography...  More
 
TOPEX/Poseidon InstrumentsTOPEX/Poseidon Ground TracksTOPEX/Poseidon LaunchQuickTime VR of TOPEX/PoseidonJason-1 Spacecraft AnimationEl Niño/La Niña - (12/1996 - 01/2000)SSH and SST - Indian...  More
 
OSTM/Jason-2 Artist's ConceptOSTM/Jason-2 Artist's ConceptOSTM/Jason-2 SpacecraftOSTM/Jason-2 Line Drawing1...  More
 
Poseidon-3 AltimeterOSTM/Jason-2 DORISOSTM/Jason-2 GPSPOSTM/Jason-2 GPSPOSTM/Jason-2 LRAOSTM/Jason-2 Radiometer AntennaOSTM/Jason-2 Radiometer AntennaOSTM/Jason-2 Radiometer AntennaRadiometer Install ...  More
 
High Resolution Jason-1 launch imagesHigh Resolution Jason-1 launch imagesHigh Resolution Jason-1 launch imagesHigh Resolution Jason-1 launch imagesJason-1 launch imagesJason-1 launch imagesJason-1 la...  More
 
Jason-1 AltimeterJason-1 DORISJason-1 TRSRJason-1 LRAJason-1 Radiometer1...  More
 
TOPEX/Poseidon Artist's ConceptTOPEX/Poseidon over EarthAriane 42P launch vehicleTOPEX/Poseidon Collecting DataTOPEX/Poseidon Line Drawing1...  More
 
TOPEX/Poseidon AltimeterTOPEX/Poseidon DORISTOPEX/Poseidon GPSTOPEX/Poseidon LRATOPEX/Poseidon Radiometer1...  More
 
TOPEX/Poseidon StickerCNES Jason LogoCNES logoJason-1 PinOSTM/Jason-2 insignia for launch vehicle1...  More
 
What's the difference between Ocean Surface Topography and Bathymetry? TOPEX/Poseidon measures the precise shape of the ocean's surface (the surface topography). Bathymetry refers to the relief on t...  More
 
Approaching 20 years of scientific discovery by NASA’s ocean altimetry satellites has broadened the depth of science objectives for the missions. OSTM/Jason-2 and its successor missions are now expect...  More
 
Thinking about becoming an oceanographer? Take the quiz and become a certified Junior Oceanographer. When you pass the Junior Oceanographer quiz you can print out your Junior Oceanographer certificate...  More
 
To receive your Jr. Oceanographer certificate, continue taking the quiz until you answer all the questions correctly. If you need help answering a question, click on the "Hint" link. Wh...  More
 
Below is the list of Junior Oceanographers. To become a certified Junior Oceanographer enter your first name and your location before you take the quiz. ...  More
 
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Publication Statistics by Year1990 to present  1990 32  1991 31  1992 43  1993 74  1994 143  1995 180  1996 130  1997 1...  More
 
The graph below shows the number of publications per year, starting in 1990 continuing through to the present. To see the exact number of entries for a given year, move your mouse over the bar and the...  More
 
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The images shown are useful for visual comparisons. The original digital data, for quantitative analyses, can be obtained from the NASA Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC...  More
 
 
The OSTM/Jason-2 education activities are conducted jointly with those of Jason-1. A primary focus has been the inception of the CNES-developed Argonautica oceanography education program in the Unite...  More
 
The Ocean Surface Topography Education and Public Outreach (OST-EPO) Team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory supports the TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason and Ocean Surface Topography Mission projects. Project ...  More
 
Study of seasonal-to-decadal variability in the Tropical Atlantic using altimetry, models and in situ observations Solving the "electromagnetic bias" problemMERCATOR, forecasting global oceanTowards h...  More
 
Authors: S. Arnault LODYC, France CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Sabine Arnault LODYC Tour 14-2 case 100 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05 - France sa@lodyc.jussieu.fr Abstr...  More
 
Authors: D.D. Arnold, K.F. Warnick, F.W. Millet (Brigham Young University, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Karl Warnick Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 459 CB Brigham Young U...  More
 
Authors: P. Bahurel SHOM/LEGOS, France P. De Mey CNRS/LEGOS, France T. De Prada CNES, France E. Dombrowsky CLS, France P. Josse Météo-France, France C. Le Provost CNRS/LEGOS, F...  More
 
Authors: M.J. Bell, A. Hines, M.J. Martin, M.E. McCulloch, D. Storkey. (Met Office, UK) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Michael Bell Met Office London Road, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SZ - UK mjbel...  More
 
Authors: G.H. Born (CCAR, USA) R.R. Leben (CCAR, USA) D.S. McCollum (CCAR, USA) J.M. Wilczak 2 (NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: George H. Born CCAR, ...  More
 
Authors: J.P. Boulanger, A. Weaver, J. Vialard, C. Menkes, P. Delecluse (LODYC, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Jean-Philippe Boulanger LODYC Université Pierre et Marie Curie ...  More
 
Authors: A.J. Busalacchi University of Maryland, USA, J. Picaut IRD/LEGOS, France, R. Murtugudde University of Maryland, USA, M.J. McPhaden NOAA/PMEL, USA, T. Delcroix, L. Gourdeau, Y. Du Penhoat ...  More
 
Authors: S. Calmant IRD, New Caledonia T. Delcroix IRD/LEGOS, Noumea, New Caledonia A. Cazenave LEGOS, France C.K. Shum Ohio State University, USA CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Stéphane Cal...  More
 
Authors: A. Cazenave, K. Do Minh, J.F. Cretaux, C. Cabanes, S. Mangiarotti (LEGOS, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Anny Cazenave LEGOS 14, av. Edouard Belin 31400 Toulouse - France Anny....  More
 
Authors: P. Challenor, P. Cipollini, D. Cromwell, C. Gommenginger, G. Quartly, H. Snaith, M. Srokosz, D. Woolf (Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Graham Quartly Room...  More
 
Authors: B.F. Chao NASA/GSFC, USA CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Benjamin Fong Chao Space Geodesy Branch Laboratory of Terrestrial Physics NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 -...  More
 
Authors: D.B. Chelton and R.A. De Szoeke Oregon State University, USA CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Dudley B. Chelton College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences 104 Oceanography Administration Bui...  More
 
Authors: Robert Cheney, Laury Miller, C.K. Tai, John Lillibridge, John Kuhn NOAA Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry, USA Ming Ji, David Behringer NOAA National Centers for E...  More
 
Authors: J. Church (CSIRO Marine Research, Australia), (Antarctic CRC, Australia), R. Coleman (University of Tasmania, Australia), (CSIRO Marine Research, Australia), (Antarctic CRC, Australia),...  More
 
Authors: P.D. Cotton (Satellite Observing Systems, UK), D.J.T. Carter (Satellite Observing Systems, UK), P.G. Challenor (Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK), V.Yu. Kareev (Institute of Applied ...  More
 
Authors: P. De Mey LEGOS, France N. Pinardi INGV, Italy M. Benkiran Coframi, France P. Faucher LEGOS, France E. Demirov INGV, Italy S. Sparnocchia ISTT, Italy F. Raicich ISTT, Italy C. M...  More
 
Authors: W. Emery (University of Colorado, USA), J. Wilkin (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand), M. Bowen (University of Colorado, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHO...  More
 
Authors: P. Exertier OCA/CERGA, France P. Bonnefond OCA/CERGA, France Y. Ménard CNES, France E. Jeansou NOVELTIS, France CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Pierre Exertier Observatoire de la...  More
 
Authors: L. Eymard (CETP, France), E. Obligis (CLS, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Laurence Eymard CNRS/CETP 10-12, av. de l'Europe 78140 Vélizy - France Laurence.Eymard@cetp.ipsl.fr...  More
 
Authors: N.M. Frew (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA), D.M. Glover (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA), E.J. Bock (University of Heidelberg, Germany) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: N...  More
 
Authors: S.T. Gille, D.T. Sandwell (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Sarah Gille Scripps Institution of Oceanography 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0230 ...  More
 
Authors: R. Glazman (NASA/JPL, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Roman Glazman JPL M/S 300-323 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena CA, 91109 - USA reg@pacific.jpl.nasa.gov SIZE="2"> Abstra...  More
 
Authors: B. Haines (NASA/JPL, USA), Y. Bar-Sever (NASA/JPL, USA), G. Born (University of Colorado, USA), E. Christensen (NASA/JPL, USA), S. Gill (NOAA/NOS, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Bruce H...  More
 
Authors: D.W. Hancock III, G.S. Hayne (NASA/GSFC, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: David W. Hancock III NASA Goddard Space Fligh Center Observational Science Branch Code 972 Wallops Island, VA 233...  More
 
Authors: S. Imawaki (Kyushu University, Japan), S. Aoki (National Institute of Polar Research, Japan), Y. Fukuda (Kyoto University, Japan), K. Ichikawa (Kyushu University, Japan), S. Ito (Tohoku...  More
 
Authors: G.A. Jacobs , C.N. Barron , P.J. Hogan , H.E. Hurlburt , H.T. Perkins , R.H. Preller , R.C. Rhodes , W.J. Teague (Naval Research Laboratory, USA), K.R. Whitmer (Sverdrup Technology, USA) ...  More
 
Authors: L. Kerleguer SHOM/LEGOS, France P. Bahurel SHOM/LEGOS, France R. Baraille SHOM/LEGOS, France E. Dombrowsky CLS, France M. Gavart Michel Gavart Consultant, France S. Giraud ...  More
 
Authors: P. Knudsen, O. Andersen, J.L. Hoyer (Kort og Matrikelstyrelsen, Denmark), A.A. Nielsen, K.B. Hilger (Technical University of Denmark, Denmark), C.C. Tscherning, N. Hoejerslev (University...  More
 
Authors: C.J. Koblinsky, B.D. Beckley (NASA/GSFC, USA), P.P. Niiler, B. Cornuelle, N. Barth (Scripps Intitution of Oceanography, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Chet J. Koblinsky Oceans and Ice ...  More
 
Authors: J.M. Lefèvre, P. Josse, P. Dandin (Météo-France, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Jean-Michel Lefèvre Météo-France - 42, av G. Coriolis 31057 ...  More
 
Authors: C. Le Provost, L. Carrere (CNRS/LEGOS, France), P. Gaspar, P.Y. Le Traon (CLS, France), F. Lyard (CNRS/LEGOS, France), R. Ponte (Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc., USA) ...  More
 
Authors: P.Y. Le Traon, C. Boone, G. Dibarboure, J. Dorandeu, N. Ducet, P. Gaspar, F. Hernandez, G. Larnicol, F. Ogor-Mertz, J. Stum (CLS, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Pierre Yves Le Traon ...  More
 
Authors: D. MacMillan (NVI, Inc., USA), Y. Bock, P. Fang (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA), B. Beckley (Raytheon ITSS, USA), C. Ma (NASA/GSFC, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Dan MacMi...  More
 
Authors: M. Merrifield, M. Bevis (University of Hawaii, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Mark Merrifield Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics University of Hawaii 1000 Pope Road, ...  More
 
Authors: Gary T. Mitchum College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, USA G.S.E. Lagerloef ESR, USA A.J. Busalacchi ESSIC, University...  More
 
Authors: P. Moore, J. Wang (Newcastle University, UK) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Gary T. Mitchum College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. South, St. Petersburg, F...  More
 
Authors: R. Morrow, G. Reverdin (LEGOS, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Rosemary Morrow LEGOS 14, av. Edouard Belin 31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 - France rosemary.morrow@cnes.fr SIZE="2"...  More
 
Authors: R. S. Nerem Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research and Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA ...  More
 
Authors: J.J. O'Brien (COAPS, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: James J. O'Brien Center for Ocean Atmospheric Prediction Studies Florida State University RM Johnson Building - Suite 200 2035 E. Pau...  More
 
Authors: Y.H. Park (MNHN, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Young-Hyang Park Laboratoire d'Océanographie Physique Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 43, rue Cuvier 75005 Paris - ...  More
 
Authors: M. Petit (IRD, France), P. Gaspar (CLS, France), M. Desruisseaux (IRD, France), F. Goujon (ORTHONGEL, France), F. Poisson (IFREMER, France), D. Guyomard (IRD, France) CORRESPON...  More
 
Authors: J. Picaut (IRD/LEGOS, Toulouse, France), A.J. Busalacchi (ESSIC/University of Maryland, Greenbelt, USA), T. Delcroix (IRD/LEGOS, Nouméa, New Caledonia), L. Gourdeau (IRD/LEGOS, To...  More
 
Authors: R.M. Ponte (AER Inc., USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Rui Ponte Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. 131 Hartwell Avenue Lexington, MA 02421-3216 ponte@aer.com SIZE="2...  More
 
Authors: C. Provost (LODYC, France), F. Vivier (presently at APL, USA), V. Garèon, I. Dadou (LEGOS, France), E. Machu (presently at CERFACS, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Christine ...  More
 
Authors: Bo Qiu Department of Oceanography University of Hawaii, USA CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Bo Qiu Department of Oceanography University of Hawaii 1000 Pope Road Honolulu, HI 96822 USA E-mail: ...  More
 
Authors: R. D. Ray NASA Goddard Space Flight Center G. D. Egbert Oregon State University D. E. Cartwright Southampton Oceanogrphy Centre CORRESPONDING ...  More
 
Authors: J.C. Ries, B.D. Tapley, R.J. Eanes, H.J. Rim (UT/Center for Space Research, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: John Ries Center for Space Research, R1000 The University of Texas at Austin; ...  More
 
Authors: E. Rodriguez, P.S. Callahan (NASA/JPL, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Ernesto Rodriguez MS: 300-319 Jet Propulsion Laboratory 4800 Oak Grove Dr. Pasadena, CA 91109 - USA ernesto.rodrig...  More
 
Authors: D. Roemmich, B. Cornuelle, J. Sprintall (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Dean Roemmich Scripps Institution of Oceanography Mail Code 0230 University ...  More
 
Authors: P. Rogel, E. Maisonnave (CERFACS, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Philippe Rogel CERFACS 42, av. Coriolis 31400 Toulouse - France rogel@cerfacs.fr Abstract: The goal ...  More
 
Authors: C. Ruf (University of Michigan, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Christopher Ruf University of Michigan 1521C Space Research Building 2455 Hayward Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 - USA c...  More
 
Authors: E.J.O. Schrama, M.C. Naeije, R. Scharroo, P.N.A.M. Visser, B.A.C. Ambrosius (DEOS/TUDelft, The Netherlands) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Ernst Schrama Thijsseweg 11, 2629 JA Delft The Neth...  More
 
Authors: J. Schröter, M. Wenzel (Alfred-Wegener-Institute, Germany) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Jens Schröter Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research Postfach 120 161, 27...  More
 
Authors: D. Stammer (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA), C. Wunsch (MIT, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Detlef Stammer Physical Oceanography Research Division Scripps Institution of Oc...  More
 
Authors: R. Stewart, R. James (Texas A&M University, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Robert Stewart College of Geosciences Texas A&M University College Station Texas, 77842-3146 - USA stewart@as...  More
 
Authors: P. Ted Strub College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, U.S.A. Ricardo P. Matano College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Ore...  More
 
Authors: R. Tokmakian, J. McClean, A.J. Semtner (Naval Postgraduate School, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Robin Tokmakian Dept. of Oceanography OC/tk, 833 Dyer Rd., Rm 328 Naval Postgraduate School ...  More
 
Authors: R. Tokmakian, J. McClean, A.J. Semtner (Naval Postgraduate School, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Robin Tokmakian Dept. of Oceanography OC/tk, 833 Dyer Rd., Rm 328 Naval Postgraduate School ...  More
 
Authors: J. Tournadre, B. Chapron (IFREMER, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Jean Tournadre IFREMER BP 70 29280 Plouzané - France jean.tournadre@ifremer.fr Abstract: The...  More
 
Authors: D. Vandemark (NASA/GSFC, USA), B. Chapron (IFREMER, France), T. Elfouhaily (CNRS, France), P. Gaspar (CLS, France), G.S. Hayne, D.W. Hancock III (NASA/GSFC, USA), G.T. Mitchum (Universi...  More
 
Authors: A. Vega, Y. Du Penhoat, B. Dewitte (LEGOS, France), O. Pizarro (PROFC, Chile), R. Abarca (CS, France) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Andres Vega Martin LEGOS 14, av. Edouard Belin 31400 ...  More
 
Authors: J. Verron (LEGI, France), E. Blayo, J. Blum (LMC, France), P. Brasseur (LEGI, France), T. Delcroix (IRD, New Caledonia), P. De Mey (LEGOS, France), G. Evensen (NERSC, Norway), L. Gourdeau...  More
 
Authors: M.M. Watkins, G.L. Kruizinga, B.J. Haines (NASA/JPL, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Michael M. Watkins Jet Propulsion Laboratory - USA Mail Stop 300-323 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena - ...  More
 
Authors: W.B. White (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Warren B. White Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego 8810 Shellback Wa...  More
 
Authors: P.L. Woodworth, C.W. Hughes, T.F. Baker, X. Dong, R.A. Flather, J.M. Huthnance, H. Leach and R. Williams (POL, UK) (LU/DES, UK) CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Philip Woodworth Proudman Ocean...  More
 
This page lists publications for the past 3 months from members of the OST science team. For older publications, please search the Literature Database. Links are provided, if available. If you would l...  More
 
The Ocean Surface Topography Science Team (OSTST) meets annually to evaluate relevant mission activities such as data calibration and validation, data processing, and mission science objectives. It is...  More
 
2009 OSTST Meeting, Seattle, WA Report of the 2009 OSTST Meeting (PDF, 18.21 MB) OSTST 2009 Program (PDF - 16 MB) - contains abstracts The Presentations and Posters from t...  More
 
2008 OSTST Meeting Home | Agenda | Location | Lodging 2008 Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Meeting at the OSTM/Jason-2 Launch Thursday, 19 June 2008 Santa Ynez Valley Marriot, Del Mar ...  More
 
2008 OSTST Meeting Home | Agenda | Location | Lodging Del Mar Room, Santa Ynez Valley Marriot, Buellton, California Last Updated: 6/12/2008 June 19, 2008 - Thursday 8:15 Registration ...  More
 
2008 OSTST Meeting Home | Agenda | Location | Lodging Santa Ynez Valley Marriott: http://www.marriott.com/hotels/travel/sbasy-santa-ynez-valley-marriott/ Map and Directions to Hotel: ...  More
 
2008 OSTST Meeting Home | Agenda | Location | Lodging Due to the unpredictable nature of a launch, we are unable to reserve a block of rooms for participants of the OSTST at the OSTM/Jason-2 lau...  More
 
JPL Scientist Honored by President Obama With Early Career Award January 15, 2010 JPL oceanographer Josh Willis was honored by President Obama at the White House on Wednesday, Jan. 13,...  More
 
The "Oceans' Music: Climate's Dance" highlights the ocean-climate link and provides educational activities that can be used in the middle school or informal education venues. This eye catching poste...  More
 
This game is suitable for play both within and outside of the classroom, and although designed for children ages 9-13, it offers a fun, learning opportunity for the entire family. In addition to being...  More
 
Wrest Point Hobart, Australia March 12 - 15, 2007 Report of the 2007 OSTST Meeting (PDF, 818 KB) FINAL PROGRAM (PDF, 3.37 MB) PARTNERS LINKS NASA Ocea...  More
 
2008 OSTST Meeting, Nice, France Summary of the 2008 OSTST (PDF, 838 KB) (from NASA's Earth Observer newsletter) All presentations from the 2008 OSTST meeting in Nice can be found ...  More
 
Select YearFeatures Archive 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002   2010 ...  More
 
Select YearFeatures Archive 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1996 1994 1993 1992   ...  More
 
Select Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002   2010 08/31/2010 ...  More
 
Powerful Properties | Watching our Waters | Fishy Facts | Astounding Aquatic Animals | Miscellaneous Marine Matters Powerful Properties & Provocative Peculiarities Earth's ocean is very imp...  More
 
Oceans control the Earth's weather as they heat and cool, humidify and dry the air and control wind speed and direction. And the weather determines not just what you'll wear to work in the week ahead-...  More
 
View the JPL OSTM/Jason-2 Spacecraft Fact Sheet (PDF, 1.61 MB) View the NASA OSTM/Jason-2 Mission Fact Sheet (PDF, 278 KB) Science Objectives Extend the time series...  More
 
This artists concept shows the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 tandem mission. More than sixteen years after the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon, and more than seven years after the launch of Jason-1, OSTM/Jaso...  More
 
Nullam tempus sodales tortor ut gravida. Ut eget ipsum augue, sed aliquet velit. Pellentesque sollicitudin fermentum leo, sit amet porttitor sapien pellentesque vitae? Vivamus hendrerit ligula non nul...  More
 

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